The characteristics of breast cancer that has spread to bone (whether it can be cured?)

Like other types of cancer, breast cancer can also metastasize alias spread to other body parts, such as the lungs, liver, brain, or bone.

Metastatic breast cancer is also called stage 4 breast cancer. Nearly 5 percent of women with breast cancer already have metastatic breast cancer when newly diagnosed. These cancers generally appear several months or years after the initial diagnosis. The risk of breast spread to the bone becomes higher after breast cancer spreads to other body parts.

What happens when breast cancer spreads to the bone?
Normally, the bones that make up the skeletal body will always change. Old bone will be broken and replaced with new bone so that our bones remain healthy and strong.

Another case in cancer patients, cancer cells that spread to the bone can cause some parts of the bone structure to break without forming new bone. This makes the bones tend to be weak and prone to fractures.

Cancer can also cause new bones to grow even though old bones have not been damaged. It makes bones harder, but their abnormal structure makes bones at risk of fracture.

What are the symptoms if breast cancer has spread to the bone?
Bone pain is usually the first symptom of breast cancer that has spread to your bones. Bones can become weak and break easily. Cancer that grows in the spine can cause pressure on the spinal cord so it can disrupt the function of the intestine and bladder. In severe cases, tumors in certain areas of the spine may also cause paralysis.

Other symptoms can be found in your blood. Cancer can cause the bone to release calcium into the bloodstream in an amount higher than normal levels (hypercalcemia). It is characterized by the appearance of nausea, loss of appetite, thirst, and constipation. You will be easily drowsy and even dazed. Hypercalcaemia may cause coma if not treated promptly.

If you have breast cancer and bone pain, doctors usually recommend imaging tests, including X-rays or bone scans (scintigraphy). Other imaging tests that may be recommended are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized cosmography (CT), or positron emission tomography (PET). This test will help diagnosis and removal of the tumor.

Can breast cancer be treated if it has spread to the bone?
Many primary breast cancer treatments can be used to treat metastasis to bone. The treatment aims to stop the spread of the tumor, and shrink or remove the existing tumor. The treatment given depends on the type of breast cancer when the cancer condition has spread to the bone.

If you have any type of breast cancer that requires hormonal therapy, you may be advised to continue. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment that can effectively kill breast cancer cells throughout your body. This treatment can be given intravenously or in pill form.

Alternatively, you can also undergo radiation therapy that specifically targets breast cancer cells. This therapy can shrink tumors, strengthen bones, and reduce pain.

In addition, your doctor may prescribe some bone boosting drugs. Some drugs are given intravenously, and the rest is taken straight away. Metal bars can also be planted through surgery to support weak bones. In addition to metal bars, bone can also be stabilized with metal plates, screws, or cement.

Different types of treatment are usually combined for best results. The treatment plan will be tailored to the body’s response to the treatment.

In addition to treating breast cancer, doctors can prescribe medications to help control pain, discomfort, and reduce fatigue. Physical therapy can strengthen bones, reduce pain, and help you move more efficiently. Using a walking stick or walker can reduce the pressure on the weak bones.

Researchers are always looking for new methods to treat metastatic breast cancer. One way to test new therapies is through clinical trials. Not just anyone can undergo new therapy. Therefore, oncology will tell you about the right clinical treatment options.

Could It Get Pregnant Because Have Diabetes?

Sometimes, the difficult problem of getting pregnant is not because you or your partner are born infertile. It could be that your fertility is only declining due to a disease that you suffer, or because of the medication you are taking to treat the disease. One of the diseases that can be a cause of difficult pregnancy is diabetes. Why is that?

Diabetes lowers sexual arousal
Untreated diabetes can cause damage to the nervous system and blood vessels. Diabetics are also more prone to heart disease. The presence of problems in the heart can cause blood flow to sensitive areas and sex organs become inhibited. Blood flow is not smooth and coupled with nerve damage makes you more difficult to aroused to even cause sexual arousal declined prematurely.

In men, diabetes has the potential to cause erectile dysfunction problems (either difficult to achieve an erection or difficult to maintain) and difficult orgasm (difficult to ejaculate). In fact, 1 in 3 men with diabetes experience erectile dysfunction, aka impotence. Meanwhile, women susceptible to vaginal infections that cause sexual intercourse can be very painful. Women can be more difficult aroused and orgasm due to nerve damage that affects the clitoris, female sex buttons.

Diabetes can cause low blood sugar aka hypoglycemia. Usually this is caused by the side effects of some diabetes drugs, such as sulfonylurea, tolbutamide, chloropropamide, or metoprolol. Insulin injections can also cause blood sugar levels to drop dramatically. Hypoglycemia can occur when you are having sex. The reason, sexual activity can be regarded as a sport. Headaches, dizziness, anxiety, difficulty focusing, until the tremor that becomes the result of hypoglycemia can stop the sex drive in the middle of the road so you no longer interest to continue making love.

Diabetes causes hard pregnancy, really?
A decrease in sexual desire due to diabetes can affect your chances of getting pregnant. having blood glucose levels that are too high or low can cause you to feel more tired or lethargic, so you are not excited to have sex. The more rare you have sex, the chances of pregnancy are also getting smaller.

Diabetes is also strongly suspected to cause DNA damage to male sperm. DNA damage is a major risk factor for sperm disorders that can lead to infertility. When we discuss the feasibility of sperm to fertilize the egg, there are three factors that play a role, namely the number of sperm, sperm form, and sperm movement. If there is one sperm disorder of all three factors, then you risk a high risk of fertility problems or even sterility.

A study, reported from Web MD, found that the semen volume of diabetic men is less than that of healthy men without diabetes. Men who have diabetes are also more at risk of having low sperm counts.

In women, untreated diabetes can increase your risk of having early menopause. Your body has experienced insulin resistance. When you are already resistant to insulin, the body can not absorb much sugar in the blood. Thus, blood sugar levels are increasing.

In fact, the hormone insulin not only serves to break down the sugar, but also affect the production of hormones needed by your reproductive system and ovulation. One of them is the hormone estrogen that plays a role in sexual arousal and egg cell maturation process. Indirectly, a decrease in estrogen can decrease the quality of a woman’s egg.

So, how to deal with this condition if you want to get pregnant?
There is no strong medical evidence to suggest that absolute diabetes is the cause of difficult pregnancy. Not everyone who has automatic diabetes will not be able to have children.

If you have diabetes and plan to become pregnant, the most important thing to do is consult with your doctor and your obstetrician. Diabetes can not be cured, but that does not mean this condition can not be controlled. By doing careful planning and preparation, the opportunity to get the baby becomes higher.

Controlling diabetes before planning a pregnancy is also important to ensure your pregnancy will always run well and your baby is also so.

Electric Cigarette vs. Tobacco Cigarettes: Which is Safer?

An electric cigarette, often called vape or e-cigarette, was originally created in China in 2003 by a pharmacist to reduce tobacco smoke, and is one way to help people stop smoking. Vape consists of a battery, a fluid-filled cartridge, and a heating element that can warm and vaporize the liquid into the air.

What is the danger of electric cigarettes compared to tobacco cigarettes?

  • Tobacco cigarettes emit tobacco-burning fumes; Electric cigarettes produce steam from fruit juice, and nicotine is heated.
  • Tobacco smoking can cause heart disease, lung, impotence, pregnancy and fetal disorders; vape causes nasal and respiratory nose disorders.
  • Tobacco cigarettes contain nicotine, tar, arsenic, carbon monoxide, ammonia and various other chemicals; electric cigarettes contain nicotine, vegetable glycerol, propylene glycol, artificial sweeteners, and all kinds of fruit flavors.
  • In addition to smoke, tobacco cigarettes leave garbage like cigarette ash and cigarettes; while vape does not leave garbage.
  • Cigarette smoke tobacco leaves a stink and does not dissolve in liquids; electric cigarettes leave the vapor dissolved in the liquid and smell of the fruit flavor.

    Which is safer?
    According to a researcher from the National Institute of Public Health in Japan, in one electric cigarette found 10 times the level of carcinogen (a group of substances that can directly damage DNA, promote or help cancer) than a regular cigarette.

Head of Health Research and Development of the Ministry of Health explained in a press release that the nicotine solution contained in electric cigarettes has different compositions and there are generally 4 types of mixtures. However all types of mixtures contain nicotine, propylene glycol.

The dangers of vape include causing acute nicotine intoxication and the presence of child mortality cases. Not only is the cigarette dangerous, the steam inhaled can cause asthma attacks, shortness of breath, and cough. This cigarette is also dangerous for people with pneumonia, heart failure, disorientation, seizures, hypotension, to burns due to explosion of electric cigarettes in the mouth.

So, until now there is no fact that proves that electric cigarette is safer than tobacco cigarette. As reported by, various studies have conducted research on electric cigarettes and the results of the study are:

  1. This electric cigarette is claimed to contain harmful substances such as Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines (TSNA), Diethylene Glycol (DEG) and carbon monoxide.
  2. Long-term use of electric cigarettes can significantly increase plasma nicotine levels after five minutes of use.
  3. Not only that, these cigarettes also increase plasma carbon monoxide levels and the frequency of the pulse significantly that can interfere with health.
  4. Has an acute effect on the lung as in tobacco cigarettes, ie exhaled air oxide nitric levels decrease significantly and airway resistance increases significantly.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned all countries around the world to ban children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age to smoke electric cigarettes.